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Sandford ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional; angry Republicans said this decision threatened to make slavery a national institution.
After Abraham Lincoln won the election , seven Southern states seceded from the union and set up a new nation, the Confederate States of America Confederacy , on February 8, It attacked Fort Sumter , a U.
Army fort in South Carolina, thus igniting the war. When Lincoln called for troops to suppress the Confederacy in April , four more states seceded and joined the Confederacy.
A few of the northernmost " slave states " did not secede and became known as the border states ; these were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.
During the war, the northwestern portion of Virginia seceded from the Confederacy. The Civil War began on April 12, , when elements of , Confederate forces attacked a U.
In response to the attack, on April 15, Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75, troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union", which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states.
The two armies had their first major clash at the First Battle of Bull Run Battle of Manassas , ending in a Union defeat, but, more importantly, proved to both the Union and Confederacy that the war would be much longer and bloodier than originally anticipated.
The war soon divided into two theaters: Eastern and Western. In the western theater, the Union was relatively successful, with major battles, such as Perryville and Shiloh along with Union gunboat dominance of navigable rivers producing strategic Union victories and destroying major Confederate operations.
Warfare in the Eastern theater began poorly for the Union as the Confederates won at Manassas Junction Bull Run , just outside Washington.
Major General George B. McClellan was put in charge of the Union armies. After reorganizing the new Army of the Potomac , McClellan failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia in his Peninsula Campaign and retreated after attacks from newly appointed Confederate General Robert E.
The main action was Union success in controlling the border states, with Confederates largely driven out of Maryland, West Virginia a new state , Kentucky and Missouri.
The autumn Confederate campaign into Maryland was designed to hurt Union morale and win European support. It ended with Confederate retreat at the Battle of Antietam , and Lincoln's warning he would issue an Emancipation Proclamation in January if the states did not return.
Making slavery a central war goal energized Republicans in the North, as well as their enemies, the anti-war Copperhead Democrats.
It ended the risk of British and French intervention. Lee's smaller army won at the Battle of Fredericksburg late in , causing yet another change in commanders.
Lee won again at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May , while losing his top aide, Stonewall Jackson. But Lee pushed too hard and ignored the Union threat in the west.
Lee invaded Pennsylvania in search of supplies and to cause war-weariness in the North. In perhaps the turning point of the war , Lee's army was badly beaten at the Battle of Gettysburg , July 1—3, , and barely made it back to Virginia.
Foreign trade increased, with the United States providing both food and cotton to Britain, And Britain sending in manufactured products and thousands of volunteers for the Union Army plus a few to the Confederates.
The British operated blockade runners bringing in food, luxury items and munitions to the Confederacy, bringing out tobacco and cotton.
The Union blockade increasingly shut down Confederate ports, and by late the blockade runners were usually captured before they could make more than a handful of runs.
In the West, on July 4, , Union forces under the command of General Ulysses S. Grant gained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg , thereby splitting the Confederacy.
Lincoln made General Grant commander of all Union armies. Grant put General William Tecumseh Sherman in charge of the Western armies.
In , Sherman marched south from Chattanooga to capture Atlanta, a decisive victory that ended war jitters among Republicans in the North who feared they might fail to reelect Lincoln in Lincoln won a landslide.
The last two years of the war were bloody for both sides, With Sherman marching almost unopposed through central and eastern Georgia, then moving up through South Carolina and North Carolina, burning cities, destroying plantations, ruining railroads and bridges, but avoiding civilian casualties.
Sherman demonstrated that the South lacked the long-term ability to resist a northern invasion. Much of the heartland of the Confederacy was physically destroyed, and could no longer provide desperately needed food, horses, mules, wagons, boots or munitions to its combat armies.
In spring Grant, realizing that Lee was unable to replenish casualties, while Lincoln would provide replacements for Union losses, launched a war of attrition against Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
This war of attrition was divided into three main campaigns. The first of these, the Overland Campaign forced Lee to retreat into the city of Petersburg where Grant launched his second major offensive, the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign in which he besieged Petersburg.
After a near ten-month siege, Petersburg surrendered. However, the defense of Fort Gregg allowed Lee to move his army out of Petersburg.
Grant pursued and launched the final, Appomattox Campaign which resulted in Lee surrendering his Army of Northern Virginia numbering 28, on April 9, , at Appomattox Court House.
Other Confederate armies followed suit and the war ended with no postwar insurgency. The American Civil War was the world's earliest industrial war.
Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War I.
It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of about , soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.
According to historian Allan Nevins , the Civil War had a major long-term impact on the United States in terms of developing its leadership potential and moving the entire nation beyond the adolescent stage:.
The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U.
It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally and actually free.
The owners were never compensated. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army.
By June , the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and liberated all of the designated slaves. The severe dislocations of war and Reconstruction had a large negative impact on the black population, with a large amount of sickness and death.
Reconstruction lasted from Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, to the Compromise of The major issues faced by Lincoln were the status of the ex-slaves called "Freedmen" , the loyalty and civil rights of ex-rebels, the status of the 11 ex-Confederate states, the powers of the federal government needed to prevent a future civil war, and the question of whether Congress or the President would make the major decisions.
The severe threats of starvation and displacement of the unemployed Freedmen were met by the first major federal relief agency, the Freedmen's Bureau , operated by the Army.
Three " Reconstruction Amendments " were passed to expand civil rights for black Americans: the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed equal rights for all and citizenship for blacks; the Fifteenth Amendment prevented race from being used to disenfranchise men.
Ex-Confederates remained in control of most Southern states for over two years, but changed when the Radical Republicans gained control of Congress in the elections.
President Andrew Johnson , who sought easy terms for reunions with ex-rebels, was virtually powerless in the face of the Radical Republican Congress; he was impeached, but the Senate's attempt to remove him from office failed by one vote.
Congress enfranchised black men and temporarily stripped many ex-Confederate leaders of the right to hold office. New Republican governments came to power based on a coalition of Freedmen made up of Carpetbaggers new arrivals from the North , and Scalawags native white Southerners.
They were backed by the U. Opponents said they were corrupt and violated the rights of whites. State by state, they lost power to a conservative-Democratic coalition, which gained control of the entire South by In response to Radical Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan KKK emerged in as a white-supremacist organization opposed to black civil rights and Republican rule.
President Ulysses Grant's vigorous enforcement of the Ku Klux Klan Act of shut down the Klan, and it disbanded. Paramilitary groups, such as the White League and Red Shirts emerged about that worked openly to use intimidation and violence to suppress black voting to regain white political power in states across the South during the s.
Rable described them as the military arm of the Democratic Party. Reconstruction ended after the disputed election.
The Compromise of gave Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes the White House in exchange for removing all remaining federal troops in the South.
The federal government withdrew its troops from the South, and Southern Democrats took control of every Southern state. They passed segregation laws and imposed second-class status on blacks in a system known as Jim Crow that lasted until the Civil Rights Movement.
The latter half of the nineteenth century was marked by the rapid development and settlement of the far West, first by wagon trains and riverboats and then aided by the completion of the transcontinental railroad.
Large numbers of European immigrants especially from Germany and Scandinavia took up low-cost or free farms in the Prairie States. Mining for silver and copper opened up the Mountain West.
The United States Army fought frequent small-scale wars with Native Americans as settlers encroached on their traditional lands. Gradually the U.
According to the U. Bureau of the Census , from to The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19, white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30, Indians.
The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate.
The "Gilded Age" was a term that Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late 19th century with a dramatic expansion of American wealth and prosperity, underscored by the mass corruption in the government.
Reforms of the Age included the Civil Service Act , which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs.
Other important legislation included the Interstate Commerce Act , which ended railroads' discrimination against small shippers, and the Sherman Antitrust Act , which outlawed monopolies in business.
Twain believed that this age was corrupted by such elements as land speculators, scandalous politics, and unethical business practices.
Beard and Matthew Josephson , some historians have argued that the United States was effectively plutocratic for at least part of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.
Morgan and John D. Rockefeller began to amass vast fortunes, many U. By American industrial production and per capita income exceeded those of all other world nations.
In response to heavy debts and decreasing farm prices, wheat and cotton farmers joined the Populist Party. From to , peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to the United States.
Many immigrants were craftsmen especially from Britain and Germany bringing human skills, and others were farmers especially from Germany and Scandinavia who purchased inexpensive land on the Prairies from railroads who sent agents to Europe.
Poverty, growing inequality and dangerous working conditions, along with socialist and anarchist ideas diffusing from European immigrants, led to the rise of the labor movement , which often included violent strikes.
Skilled workers banded together to control their crafts and raise wages by forming labor unions in industrial areas of the Northeast.
Before the s few factory workers joined the unions in the labor movement. Samuel Gompers led the American Federation of Labor — , coordinating multiple unions.
Industrial growth was rapid, led by John D. Rockefeller in oil and Andrew Carnegie in steel; both became leaders of philanthropy Gospel of Wealth , giving away their fortunes to create the modern system of hospitals, universities, libraries, and foundations.
The Panic of broke out and was a severe nationwide depression impacting farmers, workers, and businessmen who saw prices, wages, and profits fall. The resultant political reaction fell on the Democratic Party, whose leader President Grover Cleveland shouldered much of the blame.
Labor unrest involved numerous strikes, most notably the violent Pullman Strike of , which was shut down by federal troops under Cleveland's orders.
The Populist Party gained strength among cotton and wheat farmers, as well as coal miners, but was overtaken by the even more popular Free Silver movement, which demanded using silver to enlarge the money supply, leading to inflation that the silverites promised would end the depression.
The financial, railroad, and business communities fought back hard, arguing that only the gold standard would save the economy.
In the most intense election in the nation's history, conservative Republican William McKinley defeated silverite William Jennings Bryan , who ran on the Democratic, Populist, and Silver Republican tickets.
Bryan swept the South and West, but McKinley ran up landslides among the middle class, industrial workers, cities, and among upscale farmers in the Midwest.
Prosperity returned under McKinley, the gold standard was enacted, and the tariff was raised. By the U.
Apart from two short recessions in and the overall economy remained prosperous and growing until Republicans, citing McKinley's policies, took the credit.
The United States emerged as a world economic and military power after The main episode was the Spanish—American War , which began when Spain refused American demands to reform its oppressive policies in Cuba.
At the Treaty of Paris peace conference the United States acquired the Philippines , Puerto Rico , and Guam.
Cuba became an independent country, under close American tutelage. Although the war itself was widely popular, the peace terms proved controversial.
William Jennings Bryan led his Democratic Party in opposition to control of the Philippines, which he denounced as imperialism unbecoming to American democracy.
McKinley easily defeated Bryan in a rematch in the presidential election. After defeating an insurrection by Filipino nationalists , the United States achieved little in the Philippines except in education, and it did something in the way of public health.
It also built roads, bridges, and wells, but infrastructural development lost much of its early vigor with the failure of the railroads.
The canal opened in and increased trade with Japan and the rest of the Far East. A key innovation was the Open Door Policy , whereby the imperial powers were given equal access to Chinese business, with not one of them allowed to take control of China.
Dissatisfaction on the part of the growing middle class with the corruption and inefficiency of politics as usual, and the failure to deal with increasingly important urban and industrial problems, led to the dynamic Progressive Movement starting in the s.
In every major city and state, and at the national level as well, and in education, medicine, and industry, the progressives called for the modernization and reform of decrepit institutions, the elimination of corruption in politics, and the introduction of efficiency as a criterion for change.
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Browse Schools Public Schools by State University Video Reviews. My spouse and I are filing as married filing separately.
We both contributed to the support of our son. Can we both claim him as a dependent on our separate returns?
Answer: No, a child may only be claimed as a dependent on one return in a tax year. My husband and I were separated the last 11 months of the year and our two minor children lived with me for a greater part of the year than they lived with my husband.
My husband provided all the financial support. Who may claim the children as dependents on the tax return? Answer: Although your husband provided the support, you are considered the custodial parent since your children lived with you for the greater part of the year.
Are child support payments deductible by the payer and may the payer claim the child as a dependent? Answer: No and maybe. The payer of child support may be able to claim the child as a dependent: If the child lived with the payer for the greater part of the year, then the payer is the custodial parent for federal income tax purposes.
The custodial parent is generally the parent entitled to claim the child as a dependent under the rules for a qualifying child if the other tests for claiming the child are met.
If the payer is the noncustodial parent, then the payer may only claim the child as a dependent if the special rule for a child of divorced or separated parents or parents who live apart applies.
The noncustodial parent must, then, attach a copy of that release to his or her return in order to claim the child as a dependent.
Additional Information: Publication , Dependents, Standard Deduction and Filing Information Publication , Divorced or Separated Individuals Whom May I Claim as a Dependent?
Can a state court determine who may claim a child as a dependent on a federal income tax return? Answer: Federal tax law is what determines who may claim a child as a dependent on a federal income tax return.
T he average age of a senior in high school is 17 or 18 years old. C ollege Age. T he average age of a freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior in a college academic environment shows a wider range of ages, due to a student entering college at different points in life.
The student could become a freshman straight out of high school at 18, or not start as a freshman until age 20 or Some people start working or enter the military straight out of high school, and some students don't enter college until their 30s or older.
What Is the Average Age of a Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior? By Staff Writer Last Updated May 27, PM ET. Congress approved the Declaration of Independence via a vote on July 4, It was official: the colonies declared they were separate from Britain.
The Founding Fathers signed the document. John Hancock was the first to sign. In fact, two of the people who signed the declaration would become presidents.
They were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The Constitution. The country adopted the United States Constitution on September 17, It established new laws.
It made a new identity for America. The US marked its first birthday on July 4, , with 13 gunshots fired once in the morning and again in the evening.
July 4 was first recognized as a state celebration in by the Massachusetts General Court. Thus, Independence Day became a national holiday marked by patriotic displays.
On July 4, , the US celebrated its rd birthday. Countries With Shrinking Populations.